Chapter 7


7.1 Introduction to World Wide Web

If you thought you needed a TCP/IP account to surf on the World Wide Web (WWW) of Internet, you are wrong. You can use Lynx, the versatile WWW browser designed for text-based Internet accounts like your VSNL Terminal account, which is available in your First Menu as option 4.

For general information, Lynx can be accessed by either a terminal which can dial up to the account, such as a VT100 terminal, or a PC-based software package emulating the VT100 terminal, such as Telix and Procomm. Lynx is used very widely for accessing information from the WEB, and it makes this information available to a wide audience. The power and utility of Lynx is manifested by its ability to address WEB, Ftp, Gopher, and Wais sites. In fact some people seem to use only Lynx for all their information search and retrieval needs.

Here, the intention is to cover only those aspects of Lynx which will get you started and enable you to use its most common and useful features. The rest of the properties and aspects of Lynx are left for you to discover as you find the need.

7.2 Entering and exiting lynx

After you log on to your Terminal account at VSNL and come to the First Menu, type 4 to select option 4, Lynx. The screen at this point appears as shown in Fig.7-1. :

Figure 7.1 First Menu Screen with Lynx Selected



Select options by no. :

H. Help - List of commands on UNIX Prompt
0. Logout - Logout of the system
1. E-mail - Electronic mail service
2. FTP - File Transfer service
3. Telnet - Log on to another system
4. Lynx - World Wide Web browser (WWW)
5. Chat - Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
6. Kermit - Transfer files to your PC
7. New Password - Change your password
8. Zmodem download - Download files thru ZModem
9. Zmodem upload - Upload files thru Zmodem
10. UNIX Prompt - Exit to UNIX prompt

Your Selection :4


Press <Enter>, after which you will get the Lynx WWW browser screen, as shown in Fig.7-2 :

Figure 7.2 Lynx WWW Browser Screen

Welcome to the Wonder of Internet

*User Manual
*Search the Net
*Internet tools
*Exotic Indian Links
*News Archive
*Travel India & The World
*Know your Habitat
*Sports World
*Technical World
*Public news servers


mail to about the lynx set-up & somerelated query


Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.

H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history listCommands: Usearrow kys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit, '<-' to go back.

You are now in the Lynx browser. The various items listed are the Web sites and other Internet services pre-configured by VSNL, for you to explore. All these items will be briefly described here.

a. User Manual

With the arrow keys, move the cursor to the first item in this menu, and press <enter>. This takes you to the WWW site named "User Manual". When you open this site you will see the following two items on the screen:

Frequently asked questions

Under frequently asked questions you will see:

Questions? Comments? Input? Queries? Concerns? Advice?

* Bombay Helpdesk
* Delhi Helpdesk
* Calcutta Helpdesk
* Madras Helpdesk
* Bangalore Helpdesk
* Pune Helpdesk

Here VSNL is inviting you to give feedback to any of the listed helpdesk of different cities. If you take a cursor on any of the items and press <Enter> you will get a form to write your comments and mail it to the helpdesk of that city. Please not be too heavy on criticism, after all we are also human, and a bit of praise will go a long way.

If you select User Manual, you will get online interactive version of this book at the Web address:

Of course you will get the text version only if you surfing via lynx and the online version is specifically configured to be available to lynx.

b. Search the Net

Move to the second item, "Search the 'Net", press <enter>, and you see the list of some of most often used search engines on the World Wide Web.


Search engines are sites where you can enter a word or a phrase and search for the documents which contain that word or the phrase. In recent times the second item—"Yahoo" (nothing to do with our illustrious celebrity Shammi Kapoor—though he was the one who brought this word to this sub continent in 1960s). If you move the highlight to "Yahoo" and press <Enter> it opens with the following screen, shown in Fig.7-3:

Fig.7-3 Yahoo Screen

Yahoo! (p1 of 2)


[ Reuters News Headlines | What's New | Cool Sites ]

[ Write Us | Add URL | Random Category | Random Link | Info ]

______________________________ Search Options

* Arts -- Humanities, Photography, Architecture, ...
* Business and Economy [Xtra!] -- Directory, Investments,
Classifieds, ...
* Computers and Internet [Xtra!] -- Internet, WWW, Software,
Multimedia, ...
* Education -- Universities, K-12, Courses, ...
* Entertainment [Xtra!] -- TV, Movies, Music, Magazines, Books, ...
* Government -- Politics [Xtra!], Agencies, Law, Military, ...
* Health -- Medicine, Drugs, Diseases, Fitness, ...
* News [Xtra!] -- World [Xtra!], Daily, Current Events, ...
* Recreation and Sports [Xtra!] -- Sports, Games, Travel, Autos, ...
(NORMAL LINK) Use right-arrow or <return> to activate.

Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

As you can see, this site has information divided in different categories, for convenient searching. For example, if you wanted to find out about education in the American universities, you would go (move your cursor) to "Eudcation" and fairly quickly get to the catalogues of all the universities. You can then start browsing for the desired information. This is quite a rapid way to get to the information. Exploration of this site is very highly recommended.

One thing to note. The last item on search the Net is WAIS. It is another form of putting up information on Internet. "WAIS" stands for "Wide Area Information Servers" and is designed for retrieving information from networks. The people who designed it intended to make it the dominant publishing medium, but with the advent of the WEB, it has lost its importance.

c. Internet Tools

The next item, "Internet Tools" will show you following items:


Anonymous FTP sites

Before 1993, when the graphical browsing was not available on the Net, other tools were developed to search for information and software. Available on the Internet. Lot of very interesting and pre 1993 information and software is available is available can be searched through these tools only.

i. Gopher

This service is not a site on the WWW. Rather, "Gopher" gives you the option of searching Gopher Space, which is also on the Internet but different from the World Wide Web. In the past, before the WEB, as the problem of large amounts of information grew, people at the University of Minnesota devised way to present information in nested menus. When you start Gopher, it shows you a menu. After you pick an item, it shows you another menu that divides the picked item into further categories, and so on. After browsing a while, you will run into a menu that actual has useful information you can read. You can then mail the information to yourself or copy it to your computer.

The collection of all the computers supporting Gopher is called Gopher Space, which has a lot of interesting information buried in it. If you don't succeed in finding information with the WEB, you certainly should try your hand at using Gopher to look for it.

ii Archie

This takes you to a server in the UK, ArchiePlex ( An Archie Gateway for the WWW. It is a form based version of ArchiePlex. Archie is a large database of FTP sites that have software, and includes a way to search those sites for the software you want. The use of Archie is described in more detail in Chapter 4, under FTP. While it is a valuable source for software, it is unfortunately very slow.

iii. Veronica

"Veronica" is an acronym for "Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index of Computer Archives". Gopher quickly became a victim of its own success. So many Gopher servers are out there that finding the right menu that you may want, itself became hard. Veronica comes to the rescue. Like "Archie" for FTP software sites, "Veronica" has big databases of available services, for Gopher Space. Veronica tracks all the Gopher menus that can be accessed directly or indirectly from the mother Gopher in Minnesota. If you are planning to use Gopher Space for the information, do look into "Veronica".

iv. Anonymous FTP Sites List

This Web site has the most exhaustive list of FTP sites around the NET. It is worth exploring in case you have run out of other tools for the search for your information.

This completes a brief explanation of all the items on the opening screen of the Lynx browser. Suppose now that you have finished your work (or entertainment) and want to quit. Several options are given at the bottom of the screen, and one of them is "Q" for quit. If you press Q or q, and then "y" to confirm that you really want to quit, you will get out of Lynx and back to the First Menu.

Exotic Indian Links

If you take the cursor to next item, "Exotic Indian Links" and press <Enter> you will get following links displayed. If you are after information on India on the Net, it is worth your while to explore these sites. Just note that many sites related to India are being added to Web everyday so don’t assume that the following list is exhaustive. It is list VSNL people thought you should have at hand.

India: Virtual Library
its India Time
India on Internet
India world
National Informatics Centre
Discover India
Reachthough "Khoj"
InformationEntertainment Online
Glance at Indian Economic Links
Indian Vibes
India access website
Internet India
Welcome to Indozone
Indian Languages
Indian Designers hit the net
Indian Railways:An overview
Medical Information
Magazine world

e. News Archive

This item gives you page of links to News related sites on the WWW for India. If you are a person addicted to the news, you will may have lot of fun here. The sites listed are thus:

*The Hindstan Times
*The IndianExpress
*The Times of India
*The India Daily
*The Hindu
*The BBC
*Economic Front
*The Economic Times
*Hindu Business Online
*The Wall Street Journal
*The Hindustan Times
*The Ecomomist
*The Fortune

Why not create your own newspaper Here


f. Travel India & The World

Are you planning a trip within India? Or even around the world? And you want to find out certain information? Well! Explore the links given under this heading. It will be well invested time. You may be able to discover some very pertinent information. You may even know the flight schedule and other valuable nuggets of information. When you enter this item you will have following three choices:

Flight schedule
Air India
Travel India

Under Travel India link; for example you can list of Museums in different cities in India. Of course you have be interested in visiting Museums in the first place. But time you spend searching on the Web for information is well worth your while.

g. Know your Habitat

If you are interested in learning about our planet Earth and its health, this page is especially for you. It gives links to some of the best sites on World Wide Web related to preserving the life earth. We recommend it very highly to take your time out to explore these sites .

National Geographic Magazine
The Discovery Channel
World Wildlife Fund

h. Sports World

If you are a cricket addict and can’t leave your desk to watch the TV broadcast of a match and still want to keep track of how a given match is progressing. Or want to find out how machine is faring when pitted its artificial intelligence in the game of chess? Well links on this page will certainly give you access to such information and more. As open this link you will see:

Cricket Information
Chess Info.
KHEL site

Well! Explore.

i. Technical World

If you are a techie and computer nerd and want the latest shareware software then the links on this page which are displayed below are for you. You can overdose to your heart’s desire on in finding and downloading shareware.

Winsock software
Jumbo Download

j Public news servers

If you are kind of person who like to know what people are writing to each other about different topics (about 28,000) of them, then you are at the right place. Links here give you access to Newsgroups on the Internet. On a given day on a given server you can read what others are saying to your heart’s content. And if you get so moved add your two bits to it!

Following is only one screen of listing of news servers that VSNL can access. You will see this listing if you activate this link by pressing <Enter>. There are several pages of them,
123.netYesnb:673dt:0.00bps:673.00ng:16 Yes nb:690821d:95.00 bps:7271.80ng:22217
If you click on anyone of these servers, you will get a list of newsgroups which are hosted by the server. Once, you have that on your screen, you could read a given posting.

7.3 What is a URL ?

Every WWW page has a unique name, so you can jump right to it. This identification of the page or site is known as URL, an acronym for Uniformly Resource Locator. It includes information about the machine the page is stored on, the pathname of the file that contains it, and other technical points. Those details are irrelevant here.

For example, the URL for the University of Kansas home page is the following :

This is a good place to start, as the University of Kansas developed Lynx and used to distribute it. Now, further development is taken up by other people. They still have the best help files on Lynx.

The first part of the URL, "http://", is short for "hyper text transport protocol" and tells Lynx that we are going to look at a hyper text page. The string of characters "" identifies the host (computer system) on which the home page is residing. This is for general knowledge, there is no need to remember the details. If you have a URL, you can just enter that into Lynx and off you go, browsing the WEB.

7.4 Logging on to a WEB SITE

Now you are ready to log on to a Web site or read a Web page. Go to the Lynx screen by the procedure shown in Section 7.2, and then press "g" for Go. At the bottom of the screen, a prompt message asking for a URL, appears. Move the cursor to the prompt and type "". The Lynx screen now appears as shown in Fig.7-4:

Fig.7-4 Lynx WWW Screen with URL

Welcome to the Wonder of Internet

*User Manual
*Search the Net
*Internet tools
*Exotic Indian Links
*News Archive
*Travel India & The World
*Know your Habitat
*Sports World
*Technical World
*Public news servers


mail to about the lynx set-up & somerelated query


URL to open:
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

Now press <enter>. Lynx then retrieves and displays the HomePage of the University of Kansas, consisting of four pages, out of which only the first and last pages are shown in Fig.7-5:

Fig.7-5 University of Kansas Home Page

Welcome to the University of Kansas (4/23/96) (p1 of 4)

[picture of flag]


This page is on a new computer

Over the weekend of June 15 and 16, this page and much of the
information on KUfacts moved to a new computer.
If you have reached this page using a URL that includes the address or please change the address
to Some links from this page and links within KUfacts
may have been affected.

More changes to come

Until April 19, 1996, this page was all text. The new graphic--a
picture of the KU flag in the Kansas breeze--is the image you'll see
here as the University of Kansas Web presence changes. Watch this

-- press space for next page --

Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

Welcome to the University of Kansas (4/23/96) (p4 of 4)
* WWW Information By Type
* Inter-Links, Internet access made easy

Here, if you were exploring the WEB, you may want to see the news or the weather. To do this, you must move your cursor to the Inter-Links line of page 4 of 4 of the University of Kansas home page, shown in Figure 7.4. This line will now be highlighted, and by pressing the <enter> key, you will go to the screen of services provided by Inter-Links. In a similar manner you may choose further and explore the Inter-Links, until you find the news, or the weather, for example.

7.5 Maneuvering around a WEB page using keys

Once you have a WEB page on your screen, how do you maneuver around the page and follow the "hypertext links" on that page? The process of moving within a hypertext web, selecting and displaying links is known as "navigation." With Lynx, almost all navigation can be accomplished with the arrow keys and the numeric keypad. Fig.7-6 shows the functionality of these keys for moving the cursor, if you have an extended keyboard and a numeric keypad.

Fig.7-6 Keys for Moving the Cursor on a Web Page

Maneuvering Keys

When you are on a WEB page, you will see certain text in boldface -- those are the links to other pages. You can move from link to link by pressing the arrow keys, as shown in Fig.7-5. For example the 'down' key will select, i.e. take you to, the next link (boldface text), the 'up' key to the previous boldface text and so on and on, in that page. If you just want to move around the page and not jump between links, press the 'spacebar" to advance 25 lines, or the '-' (hyphen) key, to go back 25 lines.

If the cursor is on a link, i.e. on boldface text, press the 'right' arrow key to display the text associated with the link, and press the 'left' arrow key to display the previous document. This is all summarized in Figure 7.5, and all there is to it, to navigate on a given WEB hypertext page.

There are also a few other keyboard commands to aid in navigation. Some of these commands depend on the fact that Lynx keeps a list of each file you visit called the "history list". The 'backspace' or 'delete' key will show you the whole history list. Any of the documents shown in the list may be revisited by selecting them from the history screen.

7.6 Saving a site address and using the "Bookmark" file

If you visit a page or site and know that you will visit it again a number of times, for example, which changes its contents very often, Lynx provides a method for quick access. The site address is saved to a file which can be viewed, where the site may be selected and visited by Lynx.

To do this, type 'a' for adding the site address to the bookmark file, when you are at the desired page or site. An example of the resulting screen is shown in Fig.7-7:

Fig.7-7 Site Screen after Adding Address to Bookmark File

(p1 of 8)

Click! Download the leading windows web server. O'Reilly WebSite.


join now To access member-only services



CNET news


CNET radio

CNET television reviews


Save D)ocument or L)ink to bookmark file or C)ancel? (d,l,c):
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

At this point, the address is actually not yet saved. You can either save the whole document or just the link address. If you press 'L', the link will be saved in the Bookmark file in your account.

The bookmark file may be viewed by pressing 'v'. You may do this at time you are in Lynx, highlight any link (address), and go immediately to the site, instead of typing the URL. Fig.7-7 shows an example of a bookmark file, in response to pressing 'v'.

Fig.7-8 Lynx Bookmark File Screen

Bookmark file

You can delete links using the new remove bookmark command. it is usually the 'R' key but may have been remapped by you or your system administrator.

This file may also be edited with a standard text editor. Outdated or invalid links may be removed by simply deleting the line the link appears on in this file. Please refer to the Lynx documentation or help files for the HTML link syntax.

1. * Starting Point
2. 200,000 files strong! Click here to download them free.
3. CHEAPER THAN YOUR ISP! Click here and save!
4. join now
5. Search
6. About Microsoft


Commands: Use arrow keys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit, '<-' to go back.
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

In the screen shown in Fig.7-8, you can for example highlight "About Microsoft". Then pressing <enter> will take you to that page as shown in Fig.7-9, below:

Fig.7-9 Web Page Got by Using Bookmark File

About Microsoft

View picture Speeches, Columns, & Information Microsoft Brings Libraries Online Select an item to continue [INLINE] Speeches, Columns, & Information Speeches, Columns, & Information Speeches, Columns, & Information Microsoft Brings Libraries Online Picture Search For Your Dream Job! Search For Your Dream Job! Speeches, Columns, & Information Picture Picture Search For Your Dream Job! Search For Your Dream Job! Picture Picture Picture _________________________________________________________________

Bill Gates | Microsoft Brings Libraries On-line | Job Listings | Guide to Microsoft | Employment | In The News | msft | Microsoft Merchandise |


Commands: Use arrow keys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit, '<-' to go back.
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

7.7 Saving the current page to your account

If you want to save the page you are visiting for your reference, there are two ways to do it:

Save D)ocument or L)ink to bookmark file or C)ancel? (d,l,c):

Answer 'd' to save a link to the document you are currently viewing or 'l' to save the link that is currently selected on the page. Selecting 'c' will cancel without saving anything to your bookmark file.

Then press 'd' to save the page to your account at VSNL.

While you are viewing the page, press 'p' for the print option. The following screen, Fig.7-10, will then appear:

Fig.7-10 Lynx Print Screen

Lynx Printing



There are 42 lines, or approximately 1 page, to print.
You have the following print choices.
Please select one:

Save to a local file
Mail the file
Print to the screen

Commands: Use arrow keys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit, '<-' to go back.
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

In this screen, highlight "Save to a local file" and press <enter>, to save the page you were viewing to your account. The file saved to your account can be later downloaded to your computer as discussed in Chapter 13, UNIX Prompt.

7.8 Searching a site for a particular string

The "/" command activates searching in Lynx. While viewing a normal document use it to find a word or phrase within the current document.

7.9 Other useful commands

! When '!' is pressed your default Terminal will be spawned. When you quit or exit the Terminal you will return to Lynx. (Usually 'exit' under UNIX and 'Logout' under VMS.) This command is usually disabled for anonymous users.

g The 'g' command allows any URL to be viewed. Pressing the 'g' command will bring up a prompt asking for a URL. Type in the URL that you wish to view.

= The '=' command shows information about the current document and the currently selected link if there is one. The number of lines in the file, URL, title, owner, and type are shown.

z Lynx supports completely interruptable I/O processes. Press the 'z' key at any time during a connect or transfer process and the process will be halted. If any data was transferred before the interrupt, it will be displayed.


MOVEMENT: Down arrow - Highlight next topic
  Up arrow - Highlight previous topic
  Right arrow, - Jump to highlighted topic
  Return, Enter - Jump to highlighted topic
  Left arrow - Return to previous topic
SCROLLING: + (or space) - Scroll down to next page
  - (or b) - Scroll up to previous page
  c - Create a new file
  d - Download selected file
  e - Edit selected file
  f - Show a full menu of options for current file
  m - Modify the name or location of selected file
  r - Remove selected file
  t - Tag highlighted file
  u - Upload a file into the current directory
OTHER: ?(or h) - Help (this screen)
  a - Add the current link to your bookmark file
  c - Send a comment to the document owner
  d - Download the current link
  e - Edit the current file
  g - Goto a user-specified URL or file
  i - Show an index of documents
  j - Execute a jump operation
  k - Show a list of key mappings
  m - Return to main screen
  o - Set your options
  p - Print to a file, mail, printers, or other
  q - Quit (Capital 'Q' for quick quit)
  / - Search for a string within the current document
  s - Enter a search string for an external search
  n - Go to the next search string
  v - View your bookmark file
  z - Cancel transfer in progress
  [backspace] - Go to the history page
  = - Show file and link info
  \ - Toggle document source/rendered view
  ! - Spawn your default shell
  CTRL-R - Reload current file and refresh the screen
  CTRL-W - Refresh the screen
  CTRL-U - Erase input line
  CTRL-G - Cancel input or transfer

7.10 Searching the WEB for information

The WEB is most widely used for information on a subject of interest. The Internet is a large repository of information put up by the users. Searching for information is a complicated task owing to the size of Internet, the amount of information, and its many possible methods of storage. A software package for this purpose is called a search engine.

There are search engines you can use to find information of your interest. They include:

1) Altavista
2) Webcrawler

3) Yahoo
4) Lycos
5) Infoseek
6) Aliweb

VSNL has provided ready links to them. From the Lynx browser screen, which is shown in Figure 7.2, highlight the third item, "Surf the 'Net", and you will see the above engines displayed, as shown in Fig.7-11:

Fig.7-11 WWW Search Engines

Search Internet (p1 of 2)


There are many searchable databases available to locate companies,
topics, and people on the Internet. Here are a few to help you get
started. Some of these sites can get very busy. If you experience slow
responses, try another site. Since they all work a little differently,

if one doesn't find the things you desire, again, try another.

1. Altavista

-- press space for next page --

Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.

H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

Use the cursor movement keys (arrow keys) to hightlight "Altavista", press <enter>, and you will come to the screen of this search engine, developed by DEC, as shown in Fig.7-12 below. In the screen, on the blank line before the word "Submit", type your text string to be searched -- for example, type VSNL, assuming we are interested to find information about VSNL:

Fig.7-12 Altavista Web Search Screen

AltaVista: Main Page (p1 of 2)

Digital Equipment Corporation

[AltaVista] [Advanced Search] [SIMPLE QUERY] [Surprise] [Help with
Query] Search [the Web] and Display the Results [in Standard Form]
VSNL___________________________________________________ Submit
Tip: To control how your Web site is indexed, check out Help for the
proper use of the META tag.


AltaVista gives you access to the largest Web index: 30 million pages found on 225,000 servers, and three million articles from 14,000 Usenet news groups. It is accessed over 12 million times per weekday.


AltaVista wins Internet World Magazine's Industry Award for
Outstanding Service at Internet World 1996


(Text entry field) Enter text. Use UP or DOWN arrows or tab to move off.
Enter text into the field by typing on the keyboard

Ctrl-U to delete all text in field, [Backspace] to delete a character

Now press <enter>. This will result in a search of the Altavista site for any information on our query, VSNL. The links to any documents that are found will be displayed. A sample of them is given in Fig.7-13, below:

Fig.7-13 Result of Altavista Search

AltaVista: Simple Query VSNL (p1 of 5)

[AltaVista] [Advanced Search] [SIMPLE QUERY] [Surprise] [Help with
Query] Search [the Web] and Display the Results [in Standard Form]
VSNL___________________________________________________ Submit
Tip: Do not use AND or OR to combine words, simply type a few words or

Word count: VSNL:1368

Documents 1-10 of about 400 matching some of the query terms, best matches first.

VSNL GIAS (Comments)
VSNL's Gateway Internet Access Service (Comments) From: Subject: VSNL. Hi, I visited your web site
today and found the information... - size 2K - 26 Sep 95

(NORMAL LINK) Use right-arrow or <return> to activate.
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

This search found 400 documents which have VSNL in it. In the above screen only one of those is shown.

At a search engine, you can insert any string you want to search, and there is good likelihood that you will get some information from the search. You can highlight any document found, and by pressing <enter> you will bring up the hypertext document. You will have to do a bit of searching this way to pinpoint the information you are looking for. More than likely you will get a direction to follow.

7.11 Other services accessible via lynx

In addition to hypertext protocol (http), Lynx supports other protocols. specifically, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), GOPHER and WIAS. Each of these have their utility in information search and retrieval. Here we are only going to look at FTP, as it is one of the most commonly used services to get software and information available on the Internet. Other services like GOPHER and WAIS, which are not very commonly used but have their strong points, should be explored when you feel comfortable with the basics of the Internet, and you need to expand your horizons.

7.12 Downloading software

Here we give an example of downloading software using Lynx, from a FTP site. Let us log on to the site "" and see if we can retrieve "", a calculator utility for DOS.

Instead of giving a URL, press 'g' for Go, and supply the FTP site address, in this case "". Lynx will then take you there, and you will see the following screen, shown in Fig.7-14:

After maneuvering to the correct subdirectory, you can download files from that site as described in Chapter 5, FTP.

Fig.7-14 An FTP Site Screen, to Find Software

Welcome directory (p1 of 3)


Welcome to
A service of Oakland University, Rochester Michigan

If you have trouble using OAK with your ftp client, please try using
a dash (-) as the first character of your password -- this will turn
off the continuation messages that may be confusing your ftp client.
OAK is a UNIX machine, and filenames are case sensitive.

Access is allowed at any time. If you have any unusual problems,
please report them via electronic mail to archives@Oakland.Edu
Oak is also on the World Wide Web, URL:
-- press space for next page --

Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

By going to the next page, and so on, we connect to the OAK repository of software. Finally we go to the MSDOS subdirectory "/pub/simtelnet/msdos/calculte" , where the desired software is found. This is by no means a complete description of how to do the search, but is meant only to give a general indication of how it goes. Specific help from the menus available at the site in question will be initially required, in order go ahead with useful work.

The following screen, Fig.7-15, shows the contents of the "calculte" subdirectory, where our desired software file was found sitting:

Fig.7-15 An Information Screen at an FTP Site

calculte directory (p1 of 3)


Up to msdos

Jul 2 03:35 text/plain 00_index.txt 3Kb
May 2 1993 Zip File 34Kb
May 31 1991 Zip File 25Kb
Jan 21 1991 Zip File 46Kb
Jun 7 1992 Zip File 266Kb
Jun 24 09:55 Zip File 69Kb
Mar 23 1990 Zip File 40Kb
Jul 27 1993 Zip File 113Kb
Feb 15 1991 Zip File 66Kb
May 3 1993 Zip File 4Kb
May 7 12:18 Zip File 77Kb
Apr 7 1992 Zip File 28Kb
Dec 11 1990 Zip File 11Kb
Dec 27 1990 Zip File 72Kb
Jan 7 1991 Zip File 103Kb

This file cannot be displayed on this terminal: D)ownload, or C)ancel
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

In this screen, move the cursor to highlight the file "", and press <enter>. Lynx then asks if you want to Download the file. Press 'D' to select to Download, which takes you to the Lynx downloading screen, shown in Fig.7-16:

Fig.7-16 Lynx Download Options Screen

Lynx Download Options


You have the following download choices. Please select one:

Save to disk
Use Kermit to download to the local terminal
Use Zmodem to download to the local terminal
Commands: Use arrow keys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit,
'<-' to go back.

Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

You can use the option "VSNL USERS"-USE THIS FOR SAVING ON DISK to save the file in your VSNL account. If your file is large this may be advisable in case the connection from your computer to VSNL is not solid and breaks often. However, you can use the Zmodem option to download the file to your computer directly. In that case it will go to the download directory of the communication software you are using.

A word of CAUTION: At the VSNL server, Lynx is configured in such a way that it gives it own name to a file which it is downloading to your computer, and it does not retain the original name of the file. So you will have to note this down and rename the file, on your computer.

After you have the file on your computer, you can use it.

7.13 Learning more about lynx: - The help screen & lynx user's guide

We have gone through some of the main features of Lynx. There is more-- much more to Lynx. If you are in Lynx and press 'h' you should get following screen, shown in Fig.7-16 :

Fig.7-16 The Lynx Help Screen

Help! - Press the Left arrow key to exit help


Choose a subject
* About Lynx

* Key-stroke commands
* Lynx users guide
* Help on HTML
* HTML Quick Reference Guide
* Help on URL's

NOTE:The latest version of Lynx is 2.5. Upgrade here.

Commands: Use arrow keys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit, '<-' to go back.
Arrow keys: Up and Down to move. Right to follow a link; Left to go back.
H)elp O)ptions P)rint G)o M)ain screen Q)uit /=search [delete]=history list

It is very strongly recommended that you explore each one of these items. You may Save the "Lynx users guide" and have it on your computer, for easy reference and further study, at any spare moment. Lynx is one of the best ways to search and find information, and it deserves to be mastered.

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Chapter 6 TELNET
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